Reflected Brownian Bridge Area Conditioned on its Local Time at the Origin

Guy Louchard

Universit libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles (Belgique)

Algorithms Seminar

June 25, 2001

[summary by Michel Nguyen-The]

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Abstract
Using properties of the Airy functions, we analyze the reflected Brownian bridge area Wb conditioned on its local time b at the origin. We give a closed form expression of the Laplace transform of Wb, a recurrence equation for the moments, leading to an efficient computation algorithm and an asymptotic form for the density f(x,b) of Wb for x 0.



1  Introduction

Let us first introduce the standard Brownian motion denoted by x(t) and a few classical variants: the reflected Brownian motion x+(t)=|x(t)|; the Brownian bridge B(t); the reflected Brownian bridge B+(t) on [ 0,1 ]; the Brownian excursion e(t).

The object of interest in this talk is Wb:=01 B+(tdt, the area of the reflected Brownian bridge conditioned on having a local time at the origin equal to b. This random variable appeared in [4] as the limit law for m-3/2 Dm,m-b(m)1/2, where Dm,m-b(m)1/2 denotes the total displacement for a hash table with m locations and b(m)1/2 empty locations, using linear probing. It also represents the limit law for the total height of random forests with b(m)1/2 trees and m nodes or leaves. The only description of it was given by its moments, related to the classical Airy function Ai(z):= 1/p0+cos(1/3t3+ztdt (recall Ai''=zAi) in the following way:
E [ Wbk ] =k!
k
j=1



 
k1,...,kj 1, S ki=k
j
i=1
wkj


bj-1
j!
q3k-j-2(b),
where the wk are defined by the asymptotic expansion Ai'(z)/Ai(z) ~z+ k=0+wk (-1)kz-3(k-1)/2/2k, and qr(b):=0+xr/r!e-bx-x2/2 dt.

We will provide a closed form expression for the Laplace transform of Wb, a better way to compute its moments, and an asymptotic form for the density f(x,b) of Wb when x 0.

2  Laplace Transform of Wb

Computing the Laplace transform of Wb essentially requires using Kac's formula [3] and a few technicalities. Eq. (30) in [5, p. 491] states that, if we denote by t+(t,a) the local time of x(t) at a,



0
e-a t E0




exp




-
t


0
x+(udu-d t+(t,0)









x(t)=0




dt
( 2p t)1/2
=


d -
2*Ai'(2*a)
Ai( 2*a)



-1,     (1)
where 2*:=21/3. From it we can derive the following theorem:
Theorem 1   The Laplace transform Q(z,b) of Wb has the closed form expression
Q(z,b)=E [ e-zWb ] =
-z1/3eb2/2
i 21/6(p)1/2

i


-i
eb z1/3 21/3 Ai'(u)/Ai(u)(Ai'(u)/Ai(u))'euz2/3/21/3 du.

Proof. Given [. 0t x+(udu |x(t)=0]D t3/2Y and t+(t,0) D (t)1/2 t+(1,0) (scaling property), Eq. (1) leads to
E 0


0
e-a t


0
e-t3/2Wbb e-b2/2e-d (t)1/2 b
db dt
(2p t)1/2
=[d-2*L(a)]-1,
where L(a):=Ai'(2*a)/Ai(2*a). The change of variable v=(t)1/2b and an inversion on d delivers



0
e-b2/2e-a v2/b2E [ e-v3/b3 Wb ]
db
(2p)1/2
= ev 2*L(a).     (2)
After setting b= v/(2*s)1/2, u=2*a, differentiating with respect to u and using (Ai'/Ai)'=u-(Ai'/Ai)2:
1
(2p)1/2



0
e-us E [ e-(2)1/2 s3/2Wv/(2*s)1/2 ] e-v2/(24/3s)
ds
(2 s)1/2
=-ev 2*Ai'(u)/Ai(u)(Ai'(u)/Ai(u))'.
The inversion formula for Laplace transforms then writes:
E [ e-(2)1/2 s3/2Wv/(2*s)1/2 ] e-v2/(24/3s)/(4ps)1/2 =
-1
2p i

i


-i
ev 2*Ai'(u)/Ai(u)(Ai'(u)/Ai(u))'eus du.     (3)
Now set v=b(2*s)1/2, z=(2)1/2s3/2, Q(z,b)=E[e-zWb]. Eq. (3) becomes
21/6Q(z,b)e-b2/2
2(p)1/2
=
-z1/3
2p i

i


-i
eb z1/3 2*Ai'(u)/Ai(u)(Ai'(u)/Ai(u))'euz2/3/2* du
which proves the theorem.




3  Recurrence Formulae

Using Laplace transforms and inversions of Laplace transforms, we show here how to find an algorithm to compute the moments yk(b):=E[Wbk] by recurrence. We first need:
Lemma 1  Define G(h):=2*L(a)/(a)1/2 and s=1/b2; we have



0
e-1/(2s)e-ws(-1)k s3/2kyk(b)
ds
s3/2(2p)1/2k!
= [hk]
e(w)1/2G0
w3/2k
i=1
( (w)1/2 ( G(h)-G0 ) ) i
i!
.     (4)

Proof. Set s:=1/b2, w=a v2, and h=a-3/2. Eq. (2) becomes



0
e-1/(2s)e-wsE [ e-h w3/2s3/2Wb ]
ds
s3/2(2p)1/2
= e(w)1/2G(h),
Set G0:=G(0). Eq. (3) leads to



0
e-1/(2s)e-wsE [ e-h w3/2s3/2Wb-1 ]
ds
s3/2(2p)1/2
= e(w)1/2G(h)-e(w)1/2 G0                  
 
= e(w)1/2 G0
i=1
( (w)1/2 ( G(h)-G0 ) ) i
i!
.  
                    (5)
Upon expanding both sides of (5) with respect to h, this gives the desired formula.




To invert the Laplace transforms of the form e-(2w)1/2/w(j+1)/2, we will use the following lemmas:
Lemma 2   Set f(1)(x):=f(x):=1/(2p)1/2-xe-t2/2 dt (classical Gaussian distribution function) and f(j+1)(x):=-x f(j)(udu. Then



0
f(j )(-b) e-ws
(2s)(j+1)/2
s
 ds =
e-(2w)1/2
w(j+1)/2
,   j 1,     where b=1/(s)1/2.

Proof.[Sketch of proof] Ones proves the lemma by induction and uses an integration by part and an integration with respect to w to prove it at rank k+1 from rank k.


Lemma 3   The f(j )(x) can be expressed in the form:
f(k )(z)= p1(k,z) f(z)+p2(k,z)e-z2/2/(2p)1/2,
where p1(k,z) is of degree k-1, p2(k,z) is of degree k-2.
Using integration by parts on -z xj f(xdx and identification of coefficients, it is possible to prove the following proposition, enabling us to compute nice expressions of the f(j )(x):
Proposition 1   Define, for k1, j0, P1[k,j]:=[zj]p1(k,z), and P2[k,j]:=[zj]p2(k,z). Then the sequences (P1[k,j])k 1,j 0 and (P1[k,j])k,j 0 are defined by the initial values P1[1,0]=1, P2[1,0]=0, P1[1,j]=P2[1,j]=0 for j1, and the recurrence relations, for k1:
P1[k+1,j] :=P1[k,j-1]/j,   j=1,...,k,                  
P2[k+1,j]
:=
(k-1-j)/2
l=0
P1[k,j+2l]/(j+2l+1)(j+2l+1)l
                 
 
     -
(k-3-j)/2
l=0
P2[k,j+2l+1](j+2l+1)l,    j=0,...,k-1,
                 
P1[k+1,0]
:= -
 
l=1,3,...,k-1
P1[k,l]/(l+1) (l+1)(l+1)/2 +
 
l=0,2,...,k-2
P2[k,l](l)l/2.
                 

Determining a recurrence relation for the moments yk(b) hence amounts to determining a recurrence relation for the Zj defined by (see (4)):
(-1)j b-3j
Zj
j!
=[hj]
1
w3/2j
i=1
( (w)1/2 ( G(h)-G0 ) ) i
i!
.
Indeed, along the mechanical transfer rule 1/w(l+1)/2 f(l)(-b)/bl+1b2 2(l+1)/2, yj(b) is equivalent to Zj(2p)1/2eb2/2/b3. To get a recurrence formula giving Zk in function of the Z1,...,Zj, we introduce
Sk(h):=
k
j=1
(-1)j b-3j
Zj
j!
w3j/2hj =
k
j=1
hj [hj]





k
l=1
(-1)l (dl-cl)


3h
23/2



l
k
l=0
(-1)l cl


3h
23/2



l






j
( -(2w)1/2 ) j
j!
,
where the coefficients cl and dl are defined in [1, Eq. (10.4.59) and (10.4.61)] by asymptotic expansions of Ai and Ai' for |z| large, |arg(z)|<p:
Ai(z) ~
1
2(p)1/2
z-1/4e-z
k=0
(-1)k ck z-k,   Ai' (z) ~ -
1
2(p)1/2
z1/4e-z
k=0
(-1)k dk z-k,
with z:=2/3 z3/2. More explicitly: c0=1, ck=G(3k+1/2)/(G(k+1/2)54k k!), d0=1, dk=-6k+1/6k-1ck. The relation
[hk]
k
j=1
(-1)j b-3j
Zj
j!
w3j/2hj


k
l=0
(-1)l cl


3h
23/2



l


k
k
j=1



-(2)1/2
z



j
1
j!



k
l=1
(-1)l (dl-cl)


3h
23/2



l


j


k
l=0
(-1)l cl


3h
23/2



l


k-j
provides an algorithm that can easily be implemented in Maple and proves more tractable than the general expressions of the moments given by Janson.

4  Asymptotic Form of Density

4.1  Asymptotics of f(x,b) as b

Using E[Wb] ~ 1/2b and Var[Wb] ~ 1/4b4 as b , already mentioned in [4], asymptotics of (logAi)' and (logAi)', and a saddle point method, we recover the fact that we obtain a density of a Gaussian distribution when b .

4.2  Asymptotics of Q(z,b) as |z|

Using a saddle point again, setting z=k6, we obtain
Q ~ ek3 1 e-a1 k4/2*


21/2 k3/2
2 b3/4
+
b1/4 21/6 a1
4 k1/2
+O


1
k3/2






.

4.3  Asymptotics of f(x,b) as x0

The formula f(x,b)=1/2p i c-ic+i exzQ(z,bdz, c>0, the former asymptotics and a saddle point method lead to:
f(x,b) ~ e2/x2
(2)1/2
(p)1/2



31/4 a19/4
9 x11/4 b3/4
-
33/4 a13/4
3 x9/4 b1/4
+
b1/431/4(27+16 a13)
x7/4a13/4
+O


1
x5/4






.

5  Open Questions

It remains to find an asymptotic form for the density f(x,b) as x ---this not even known for the classical Airy density---and an explicit form for the density f(x,b). Are also missing an analysis of the local time t+(t,a) of B+(t) at a, conditioned on its local time b at the origin, and some analytic variations on Wb (see [2] for the classical Airy distribution).

References

[1]
Abramowitz (Milton) and Stegun (Irene A.) (editors). -- Handbook of mathematical functions, with formulas, graphs, and mathematical tables. -- Dover Publications Inc., New York, 1966, xiv+1046p.

[2]
Flajolet (P.) and Louchard (G.). -- Analytic variations on the Airy distribution. Algorithmica, vol. 31, n°3, 2001, pp. 361--377. -- Mathematical analysis of algorithms.

[3]
It (Kiyosi) and McKean, Jr. (Henry P.). -- Diffusion processes and their sample paths. -- Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1974, xv+321p. Second printing, corrected, Die Grundlehren der mathematischen Wissenschaften, Band 125.

[4]
Janson (Svante). -- Asymptotic distribution for the cost of linear probing hashing. Random Structures & Algorithms, vol. 19, n°3-4, 2001, pp. 438--471.

[5]
Louchard (G.). -- Kac's formula, Levy's local time and Brownian excursion. Journal of Applied Probability, vol. 21, n°3, 1984, pp. 479--499.

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