Optimal Carrier Sharing in Wireless TDMA
New Jersey Institute of Technology
February 4, 1999
[summary by Philippe Robert]
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An important design issue in implementing Dynamic Channel Assignment in Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) wireless networks is whether resource allocation should be done
on a per-carrier basis or at the time slot level. Resource allocation at the time slot level is seriously hampered by the lack of synchronization between base stations in distinct cells.
We present simple greedy packing algorithms which overcome this obstacle by clustering calls. The results suggest that the algorithms are nearly optimal, and that little extra
performance can be gained either by allowing the rejection of calls or
TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) systems supply most digital
cellular services (GSM for example).
The available spectrum is divided into carriers (frequency bands) and
each of these is time slotted. A carrier is slotted and up to n
calls can be time-multiplexed at one time (for example there are 8
time-slots per carrier for GSM). When n calls are active, call
requests are rejected since no queueing is possible.
The calls in a cell A can share any given carrier. A carrier
assigned to the cell A will not be assigned to another cell close
enough to interfere with its calls. This talk presents algorithms
ensuring that a neighboring cell B is allowed to time-share the
carrier with cell A. The sharing mechanism must take into account
that the slots in cells A and B are not perfectly synchronized. To
avoid interference, the slots assigned to cell A are not allowed to
overlap slots assigned to cell B.
Clearly, to maximize the
acceptance rate of call s, time-slot allocation should try to cluster
separately A-calls and B-calls. In the above figure the hatched
rectangles indicate time slots which cannot be used by cell B. In
this case clustering of A-calls would make 3 slots available
instead of 2. The time-slots are represented by a circle with n
An algorithm of slot allocation is greedy if a new call is
accepted if there is an available slot.
A repacking algorithm can reallocate the time-slots
(i.e., repack) in order to admit a new call.
Some Examples of Assignment Algorithms
A stochastic model is considered, the calls in cells
A and B arrive according to a Poisson process with parameter
lA and lB respectively. Holding times are
independent with rate µ in each cell. For X=A,
B, rX=lX/µ and pX denotes the probability of
rejecting an X-call. The overall probability to be minimized is then
The classical method to find the optimal algorithm to minimize the
blocking probability is to solve the associated Bellman equation. As
usual this equation is very hard to solve explicitly except when the
state space is quite small.
Clustering algorithms Cn.
A call is packed in the first available slot found in a scan of the
current state clockwise from slot (1,2) if an A-call and
counterclockwise from slot (2n-2, 2n-1) if a B-call. This algorithm
tries to separate as much as possible A and B-calls.
- Weighting algorithms Wn.
Each slot carries a weight. At arrival, the quantity d0 is
added to the A-slot receiving the new call and d1 to
neighboring slots, d2 to the slots at distance 2,.... The
quantity d1' is added to the B-slots covered by the slot of
the new call, d2' to the B-slots at distance 2, etc. An
analogous procedure applies to the B-call arrivals.
Weight changes are reversed at departure times.
- Repacking algorithm Rn. Pack A and B calls in separate
clusters whenever necessary.
Some numerical values are presented and discussed in the case n=8.
The main mathematical result is the following theorem.
If all optimal algorithms are greedy and if holding times are
i.i.d. exponentials, then the algorithm Wn is optimal for 1£
The proof relies on a coupling argument.
Borst (S. C.), Coffman (E. G.), Gilbert (E. N.), Whiting (P. A.), and Winkler
(P. M.). --
Optimal carrier sharing in wireless TDMA, September
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